Kallman’s Syndrome — A congenital hypothalamus dysfunction that has multiple symptoms including the failure to complete puberty.

Karyotype: The chromosomal characteristics of a cell.

Karyotyping — A chromosome analysis in which cells are studied to look for abnormalities. Testing a fetus may show if there is a chromosomal reason for the pregnancy loss, which causes about 50% of miscarriages. Testing the parents can help determine if there is an underlying chromosomal problem that increases the chances of repeated losses, which occurs in about 3% of couples with recurrent pregnancy loss.

Klinefelter’s Syndrome — A genetic abnormality characterized by having one Y (male) and two X (female) chromosomes or a mosaic (a combination of 46XY and 47XX). Klinefelters often causes a fertility problem, though some men will produce sperm. ART and donor insemination are possible. The condition can be passed on